, Flower orientation varies from pendent or deflexed (hanging down) as in N. triandrus (see illustration, left), through declinate-ascendant as in N. alpestris = N. pseudonarcissus subsp.
Pollinated by bees seeking, 'Paperwhite' form. Outdid the sparkling waves in glee: – Several green or blue-green, narrow, strap-shaped leaves arise from the bulb. The six tepals sometimes differ in colour from the corona and may be cream coloured to pale yellow.. chinensis was grown as an ornamental plant but the bulbs were applied topically to tumors in traditional folk medicine.  Yet the description given of daffodils by his sister, Dorothy is just as poetic, if not more so, just that her poetry was prose and appears almost an unconscious imitation of the first section of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (see Greek culture, above). Both wild and cultivated plants have naturalised widely, and were introduced into the Far East prior to the tenth century. It is likely that the traditional use of narcissi for the treatment of cancer was due to the presence of isocarbostyril constituents such as narciclasine, pancratistatin and their congeners.  Narcissi are increasingly under threat by over-collection and threats to their natural habitats by urban development and tourism. Water and minerals are taken from the soil through roots. jonquilla. , Allogamy (outcrossing) on the whole is enforced through a late-acting (ovarian) self-incompatibility system, but some species such as N. dubius and N. longispathus are self-compatible producing mixtures of selfed and outcrossed seeds.. stigma, it just has to come in contact with it in a daffodil's poison, visit the  Narcissus appears to have arisen in the area of the Iberian peninsula, southern France and northwestern Italy. Seeds take five to six weeks to mature. Subgenus Hermione in turn arose in the southwestern mediterranean and north west Africa.. Along the Lake, beneath the trees,
The inflorescence is scapose, the single stem or scape bearing either a solitary flower or forming an umbel with up to 20 blooms. , The narcissus appears in two Graeco-Roman myths, that of the youth Narcissus who was turned into the flower of that name, and of the Goddess Persephone snatched into the Underworld by the god Hades while picking the flowers. , A passage by Moschus, describes fragrant narcissi. Like many monocotyledons, the perianth is homochlamydeous, that is undifferentiated into separate calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals), but rather has six tepals.  Over 140 varieties have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (See List of Award of Garden Merit narcissus). For horticultural purposes, all Narcissus cultivars are split into 13 divisions as first described by Kington (1998), for the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), based partly upon flower form (shape and length of corona), number of flowers per stem, flowering period and partly upon genetic background. and Trichodorus spp.) A.D. 40–90) and Soranus of Ephesus (A.D. 98–138) in the first and second centuries A.D., while the Roman Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23–79), advocated topical use.
moschatus, horizontal (patent, spreading) such as N. gaditanus or N. poeticus, erect as in N. cavanillesii, N. serotinus and N. rupicola (Table I), or intermediate between these positions (erecto-patent).. facts page.
 The reason for the introduction of the initial "d" is not known.
The remaining sections within subgenus Narcissus include both lowland and mountain habitats.  Indigenous in Europe, the wild populations of the parent species had been known since antiquity.
inside its ovary. Soil also provides support for the plant and an anchor for the roots. All species produce nectar at the top of the ovary. In the Netherlands there are special exhibition gardens for major buyers to view flowers and order bulbs, some larger ones may have more than a thousand narcissus varieties on display. Since the fungus can remain in the soil for many years it is necessary to remove infected plants immediately, and to avoid planting further narcissi at that spot for a further five years. , Plants may spread clonally through the production of daughter bulbs and division producing clumps. forming smaller bulbs called bulblets.
That floats on high o'er Vales and Hills,  Bracteoles are small or absent.. Essentially any insect or organism Narcissus were well known in ancient civilisation, both medicinally and botanically, but formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum (1753).  A later extended analysis by Rønsted et. In the mature plant the leaves extend higher than the flower stem, but in some species the leaves are low hanging.
Blue mould rot of bulbs may be caused by infection with species of Penicillium, if they have become damaged either through mechanical injury or infestation by mites (see below). The scales are of two types, true storage organs and the bases of the foliage leaves. Prior to planting disinfection by hot water takes place, such as immersion at 44.4 °C for three hours.
Diseases of Narcissus are of concern because of the economic consequences of losses in commercial cultivation. Pliny the Elder later introduced the Latin form narcissus.
, The commonest form of commercial propagation is by twin-scaling, in which the bulbs are cut into many small pieces but with two scales still connected by a small fragment of the basal plate. tiny black seeds are dry and ready for dispersal. , Virgil, the first known Roman writer to refer to the narcissus, does so in several places, for instance twice in the Georgics. process. The most famous display is at Keukenhof, although only about 100 narcissus varieties are on display there. They are one of the most popular spring flowers and one of the major ornamental spring flowering bulb crops, being produced both for their bulbs and cut flowers, though cultivation of private and public spaces is greater than the area of commercial production. , On 1 May 2009, a number of schoolchildren fell ill at Gorseland Primary School in Martlesham Heath, Suffolk, England, after a daffodil bulb was added to soup during a cookery class. , Production of both bulbs and cut flowers takes place in open fields in beds or ridges, often in the same field, allowing adaptation to changing market conditions.  To prevent planted bulbs forming more and more small bulbs, they can be dug up every 5–7 years, and the daughters separated and replanted separately, provided that a piece of the basal plate, where the rootlets are formed, is preserved.  Another German source at this time was Peter Lauremberg who gives an account of the species known to him and their cultivation in his Apparatus plantarius: de plantis bulbosis et de plantis tuberosis (1632).. While some of the production is for forcing, most is for dry bulb production.  In Germany, which has relatively little limestone, Narcissus pseudonarcissus grows in small groups on open mountain meadows or in mixed forests of fir, beech, oak, alder, ash and birch trees with well-drained soil. This property has been exploited for medicinal use in traditional healing and has resulted in the production of galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Life Cycle of a Daffodil. the stigma and fertilizes the ovules of the plant, the daffodils enter their dormant stage and are readied to start the daffodil life cycle all over again.
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